This lesson adds another millis() timer and 'if' statement with the same structure as lesson 12. Now the loop will execute as quickly as possible, executing one 'if' every 300 milliseconds and another 'if' every 600 milliseconds. Don't allow the number of lines of code to overwhelm you- think about the different parts of the loop and how they fit together like blocks.

/* * In this lesson, you will add in a second timer check to control the * animation of JumpMan's legs. In the previous program, the animation * update used the same timer as the position so that each time the * position was updated, the animation icon changed. With this program, * you can control their speeds independently. */ #include "MakerScreenXVI.h" MakerScreenXVI lcd; byte run0[8] = { //legs in partial stride 0b00000, 0b01100, 0b01100, 0b01100, 0b01110, 0b01100, 0b01010, 0b01010 }; byte run1[8] = { //legs in full stride 0b00000, 0b01100, 0b01100, 0b01111, 0b01100, 0b01100, 0b01010, 0b10001 }; int position = 0; //holds the changing position of the cursor bool runState = 0; //which running animation to draw (0 or 1). int jumpState = 0; //0 ='pre-jump', 1 ='mid jump', 2='post jump' bool buttonState = 0; //will equal 1 after press, 0 after jump completed /* * A new timer variable can still be compared with millis(), since millis() * is constantly growing regardless of what happens in the program. */ long animationTimer; //tracks animation (custom character) updates long runTimer; //tracks position updates void setup() { lcd.begin(); lcd.backlightOn(); lcd.createChar(0, run0);//put run0 array character into 'slot' 0 lcd.createChar(1, run1);//put run1 array character into 'slot' 1 pinMode(6,INPUT_PULLUP); //button to trigger jump //Start both timers equal to millis() so that the difference between //millis and the variables is 0. animationTimer = millis(); runTimer = millis(); } void loop() { //Set the cursor depending on the state of the character if (jumpState == 0){ lcd.setCursor(position,1);} else if (jumpState == 1){ lcd.setCursor(position,0);} else if (jumpState == 2){ lcd.setCursor(position,1);} lcd.write(runState);//draw the run0 or run1 animation if ((digitalRead(6) == LOW)&&(jumpState == 0)){ buttonState = 1; //1 means a press is recorded } //Button is unpressed and a jump has been completed if ((digitalRead(6) == HIGH)&&(jumpState == 2)){ jumpState = 0; } /* * Implement the same kind of check you used with the runTimer check, * but with the animationTimer variable. Make the time between updates * 300 ms- half the time between position updates, so that the animation * goes through both (full and partial stride) icons in each position. */ if (millis() - animationTimer > 300){ //Every 300 milliseconds, run this... runState = 1 - runState; animationTimer = millis(); lcd.clear(); //clear the LCD to draw a new character } if (millis() - runTimer > 600){//Every 600 milliseconds, run this... position = position + 1; //move character one space to the right if (position == 16){//reset position to 0 when you reach the screen's edge position = 0; } //if button has been pressed and a jump hasn't been initiated... if ((buttonState == 1)&&(jumpState == 0)){ jumpState = 1; buttonState = 0; //reset button to 'unpressed' in the code } else if (jumpState == 1){ //true if jumpState set to one in the last loop jumpState = 2; //jump is marked as complete } lcd.clear();//clear the LCD to draw a new character runTimer = millis();//update runTimer to current millis() value. } } /* * In this lesson, you added another timer so that animation is separate * from position, which allows the JumpMan's legs to move at a different * pace than his position on the screen. * * In the last program you had two 'sets of checks'. Now you have 3: * One that happens as quickly as the Maker Board can do it, one that * happens every 300 milliseconds, and one that happens every * 600 milliseconds. * * A pattern you'll notice is a 'reset' after an 'if' statement based on * a timer. Each time you complete the action associated with a timer, * reset it. Without that, the (if millis()- animationTimer) statement * will always be true. * * Comment out the animationTimer = millis(); line in loop by placing * two slashes (//) in front of it. Upload the code to see the effect of * not resetting your timers. * * Try changing the number in (millis()- animationTimer) to something * smaller. Do you find a number you think looks better? */ // (c) 2017 Let's Start Coding. License:

This lesson creates a visual effect, but doesn't impact the way the game is played very much. Adding these types of features is up to you as a programmer. Sometimes, you may want something that 'just works', even if it is not pretty. Other times, the way the product looks to you or your user may be much more important than how smart the code is.

In either case, we encourage you to write well-structured code. That way, even a simple program is easier to enhance in the future.